General term- Inclusiveness
Inclusiveness is an outcome that results from methods of social inclusion that recognizes diversity as well as institutionalized, structural or personal impediments to participation of people because of their self-identity or ascribed identity (such as gender, race, ethnicity, religion, abilities, class and so on). Inclusiveness thus specifically addresses individuals or groups who were previously not included or excluded to participate in and influence decision-making processes and actions (Bicchi 2006; Reynal-Querol 2005; Ibarra 1993). To be integrated, all members must be able to share and not compete for power and resources (Smith et al. 2012). Inclusiveness is used as a term across disciplines including education, sociology, psychology, politics and economics.
Relevance: where and how is the term relevant in the OpenHeritage?
OpenHeritage puts the idea of inclusive governance of cultural heritage sites together with the development of heritage communities at its centre to create sustainable models of heritage asset management. To delivering a supporting toolbox promoting the uptake of the inclusive models, the analysis and clarifying of inclusiveness in current adaptive reuse policies in Europe and selected practices is an essential task of the project.
Inclusiveness is closely related to social inclusion which is an affirmative action to change the circumstances and habits that lead to or have led to social exclusion. The focus on social inclusion stems partly from the worldwide attention to growing income and wealth inequality, and the likely social and political consequences (Maitreyi Bordia Das 2016). The core concept of social inclusion can be understood based on Amartya Sen’s capabilities approach (Amartya Sen 1999), that highlights the need for inclusive policies, and argues that every person must be provided with the capabilities to lead the life he or she has reason to live. Capability approach is a moral framework. It proposes that social arrangements should be primarily evaluated according to the extent of freedom people have to promote or achieve self-development.
The inclusive tools or methods have been particularly advocated by international organizations such as the UN and the World Bank to reduce the international issue of unequal economic and social resources. UN studies have also provided the framework of the indicators for analyzing and measuring social inclusion (Atkinson and Marlier 2010). As the World Bank states (World Bank 2013), social inclusion is the process through improving the ability, opportunity, and dignity of those disadvantaged on the basis of their identity to take part in society. Studies and projects thus mainly focus on how to achieve social inclusion in various fields. On the other hand, the statement obviously show social inclusion is an action to reduce social exclusion. Most of the related studies also emphasize to reach social inclusion require a broader and deeper knowledge of exclusion and its impacts.
Related to OpenHeritage project, inclusion or inclusiveness in management or governance are also common discussed. The importance of public participation and how to include diverse groups and views in the management or governance process are always the coal goal in studies. It is notable that inclusion and participation are two different approaches to public engagement. With different implications for the roles of the parties involved, the kinds of decisions reached, and the kind of community fostered by engagement (Kathryn 2011): many people are invited to participate and do participate mean high participation but only when diverse views are also engaged and the participants in the process take part in defining the problem and/or decision-making can be taken as high inclusion.
In terms of conceptual clarification, the debating of social inclusion mainly revolves around social integration, voluntary exclusion and adverse incorporation (Khan et al. 2015): it is worth to point out that, social inclusion is not the same as social integration, even though the two terms are at times used interchangeably and both aim to contribute to making societies more cohesive. However, social inclusion is more tend to be the process or action of improving the terms of participation in society for people who are disadvantaged on the basis of age, sex, disability, race, ethnicity, origin, religion, or economic or another status, through enhanced opportunities, access to resources, voice and respect for rights.
Unlike focusing on the inclusion of excluded individuals or groups, social integration has been defined as ‘the process of promoting the values, relations and institutions that enable all people to participate in social, economic and political life on the basis of equality of rights, equity and dignity’ (UN Expert Group Meeting on Promoting Social Integration 2008) to make a“A society for all” in which every individual, each with rights and responsibilities, has an active role to play ( WSSD 1995). However, social integration can also imply integration on poor terms, and cultural homogenization (Khan et al. 2015).
- Smith, A. N., Morgan, W. B., King, E. B., Hebl, M. R., & Peddie, C. I. 2012. The ins and outs of diversity management: The effect of authenticity on outsider perceptions and insider behaviors. Journal of Applied Social Psychology, 42(S1), E21–E55.
- Reynal-Querol, M. 2005. Does democracy preempt civil wars? European Journal of Political Economy, 21(2), 445–465.
- Bicchi, F. 2006. ‘Our size fits all’: Normative power Europe and the Mediterranean. Journal of European Public Policy, 13(2), 286–303.
- Ibarra, H. 1993. Personal networks of women and minorities in management: A conceptual framework. Academy of Management Review, 18(1), 56–87.
- Khan, S., Combaz, E. & McAslan Fraser, E. 2015. Social exclusion: topic guide. Revised edition. Birmingham, UK: GSDRC, University of Birmingham.
- Report of the World Summit for Social Development. 6-12 March 1995. Copenhagen. 66.
- A. B. Atkinson and E. Marlier. 2010. Analysing and Measuring Social Inclusion in a Global Context. United Nations publication, New York.
- The World Bank. 2013. Inclusion Matters: the Foundation for shared prosperity. World Bank Publications. New York.
- Quick, K. S., & Feldman, M. S. 2011. Distinguishing Participation and Inclusion. Journal of Planning Education and Research, 31(3), 272–290.
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